Sunday, March 1, 2015

Living on the Edge

Hello Redwood's Fans!

You may have been wondering just what has happened to me since I haven't done these preview posts for a few weeks. Well, it's been a little bit of a roller coaster ride lately. There has only been one member of our family that hasn't been to the UC/ER in the last three weeks.

That is no joke.

I came down with a horrible case of bronchitis. Dang that flu shot for not working so great this year! My youngest broke her arm. My husband was in the ER for a heart arrhythmia. 

I know, fun times. I can see the jealousy on your faces.

It's also respiratory season which means everyone who works in pediatrics is getting their rear-ends kicked at work every shift with increased patient loads of sicker kids. Let me just say my US magazine reading has sharply declined.   

None of us can predict with these life events will happen. It reminds me a little bit of white water rafting. What?-- you say. She has certainly lost her mind.

White water rafting is fun but a little anxiety producing. You fear getting tossed into the water. There are all these dire warning about what to do when that happens.

1. Don't put your feet down hence they get trapped and you drown.
2. Don't loose your paddle because we don't want to have to find a new one.
3. Swim to the side because we might not be able to get you.

Why would anyone try this sport? One, the scenery is awesome. Two, it's a God made roller coaster. It's fun getting splashed with water-- most of the time. Not so fun, getting hailed on but I digress.

In the back of your mind while you're having all this fun is the thought you might get tossed out and what will you do if that happens. It's a little slice of living on the edge. 

I've been tossed out into white water several times. You know what-- you cannot anticipate it. One minute you're in the boat. The next, you're wet and cold and wondering what the heck just happened. 

Isn't this so much like death in our lives? We really do not know when that moment will be. Are you prepared? Can you ever be prepared?

Thoughts?

This week's posts will be spent answering an author's questions about medical treatment of patients who have been in a motor vehicle accident. 

Another one of those unexpected things.

Have a great week of unexpectedness. 


Thursday, February 26, 2015

Author Forensic Question: Planting DNA Evidence


Question:


I’m considering writing a crime novel that involves the antagonist framing others for crimes he has committed. He is a genius level sociopath who studies his victims' habits by analyzing their trash.  His day job is with the local trash company (handy for him.)

Now the question. Can he use semen from a condom (if it's not too old) to plant on/in a victim? He rapes, kills, and then plants the evidence along with other clues that lead to his intended second victim?

Amryn says:

This is a great scenario for a novel and would certainly throw the police off for a while. For the antagonist to pull this off, he will need to take some precautions. First of all, if he rapes the victims himself, he’ll most certainly need to wear a condom. Secondly, how he kills his victims will be important in determining if he’s left any of his DNA behind. For instance, if he strangles them with his bare hands, it is possible his DNA could be found from a swab of the victim’s neck. The use of a knife would run the risk of cutting himself and leaving his own DNA behind that way.

As far as planting the evidence, that’s certainly possible. In fact, the reverse of this has been done in real life. A man was put in prison for rape, largely because of the DNA evidence against him. While he was in prison, he placed some of his semen in a ketchup packet and smuggled it out to a female friend. She then planted the semen on herself and said she’d been raped. When they collected the evidence and processed it, the DNA came back to the man who was in prison—a pretty good alibi for the time of the rape. He insisted that the DNA results must have been wrong in the first place or someone else had his DNA profile. Of course, his scheme didn’t work, and as far as I know, he’s still in prison. All that to say, yes, planting that sort of evidence is definitely possible.


If your antagonist takes the condom from someone else’s trash, he runs the risk of having another person’s DNA present as well. When things are thrown away, DNA from several sources (presumably everyone who lives in the house) will come in contact with other objects and transfer will happen. There might not be significant enough transfer to matter, but it could result in the bad guy inadvertently transferring the male’s DNA as well as his partner’s DNA to the victim. If that’s his intention, there’s no problem, but it could also provide a way for your hero to figure out that something just doesn’t seem right about this.

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Amryn Cross is a full-time forensic scientist and author of romantic suspense and mystery novels. Her novel, Learning to Die, is available on Amazon. The first book in her latest series, loosely based on an updated Sherlock Holmes, is available for pre-order on Amazon. Look for Warzone in January 2015. You can connect with Amryn via her websiteTwitter and Facebook.

Tuesday, February 24, 2015

Choke Holds: A Police Perspective Part 3/3

Today I'm concluding a three part series written by Deputy Karl Mai that gives accurate inside information on police choke holds/stunning techniques, how and when they are applied. 

Follow the links for Part I and Part II.

Welcome back, Karl!



Some final words about all of these techniques.

First, they rely on the effects of a fluid shock wave to have the desired results. It’s not enough to simply strike/punch the target in the described area. Police are taught to strike and hold the pressure of the strike on the targeted area for a second, so to send a fluid shockwave through the body tissues. Also, and this would apply to a carotid restraint as well, police are taught to not let the target simply fall to the ground uncontrolled after using these techniques.

An uncontrolled fall can result in unexpected injuries, especially to a person’s head. After striking the target, if the target goes limp, or gets weak in the knees, police will try to grab hold of the target and guide them to the ground to prevent unwanted injuries. This may not be feasible depending on the dynamics of the fight, or if there are multiple attackers, but the goal of preventing unwanted injuries is always there.

In the case of your secret agent, former Special Forces guy, the writer should consider how the character will restrain the target after incapacitating them, knowing that the target will get up fairly quickly and be very capable of continuing the attack/pursuit.

Some suggestions:


1. If going up against the police or other agents, would be to use the officers own handcuffs or flexi-cuffs (basically large zip ties) to restrain the officer during the precious few seconds they are incapacitated.

2. Have the main character carry handcuffs, or flexi-cuffs of his own.

3. Simply have the character apply the technique, safely guide the target to the ground and use those seconds to run away. If there are additional pursuers, would the character want to waste time handcuffing the officer while other officers/agents are closing in on him?

Another thing to consider is, how would other officers/agents respond to witnessing the main character apply these techniques to one of their fellow officers?  The answer to that question is it raises the stake . . . a lot. 

If a cop sees someone attacking one of their own to the point of incapacitation, it allows for a lethal response. In other words, the character who is actually taking special measures not to have to kill the officer/agent, may suddenly find themselves getting shot at. Or the officer/agent who is being subjected to the technique will likely respond with lethal force if they can manage to do so.

In reality, the officer can’t know what their attacker’s intentions are or what they will do to the officer once incapacitated. Will the attacker simply walk away? Will the attacker continue to assault the officer causing further injury to the officer when the officer is incapacitated? Will the attacker take the officer’s gun and kill the officer, kill other officers, or kill other citizens?

Therefore, when facing incapacitation, loss of consciousness, or being put into a seriously inferior position (such as down on the ground with an attacker on top of the officer), an officer may respond with lethal force. Other officers witnessing this happen to a fellow officer may respond with lethal force as well.

Karl, my personal thanks to you for all of this great information. I know it will definitely make my novels more accurate!

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Deputy Karl Mai is a 16 year veteran of the El Paso County Sheriff’s Office in Colorado Springs, CO.  He has mostly worked street patrol and as a Field Training Officer (FTO), but has also worked in the county jail and as a Detective.


Thursday, February 19, 2015

Choke Holds: A Police Perspective Part 2/3

Today we're continuing with a three part series on police choke holds from a law enforcement officer's perspective. 

This is Part II which covers the physiology and mechanism of these strikes. Great details for authors to use in their novels. You can find Part I here.

Welcome back, Karl!

Getting into the physiology of choke-hold techniques would be good background information for the writer/reader as well. First off, let’s clarify one thing. The police don’t “choke” people. Choking implies obstructing a person’s airway and limiting their ability to breath. Because a person can hold their breath for several minutes when calm, or even a mere twenty to thirty seconds while in the midst of a fight, this would be a bad technique for incapacitating someone.

The officer would not only have to apply enough strength to cut off the airway (which is a lot), but also overpower the target long enough for that person to lose consciousness. Using a technique that requires literally all of the officer’s own personal strength for twenty to thirty seconds is not feasible.

What the police actually do, and what you see in MMA, is generally one of several different carotid restraints. Blocking off the blood to a person’s brain at the point of the neck can cause a person to pass out in only a few seconds and requires far less strength to apply correctly. But again, the effects last only a few seconds.

In MMA and in police training, the technique usually involves applying external pressure to the carotid arteries, while not actually interfering with the person’s ability to breath. Some simple internet searching would provide names and a detailed explanation of the techniques for the author to use in their writing.

PLEASE NOTE: Many police departments actually frown upon use of carotid restraints in response to anything less than a serious attack, or even a lethal force situation, because it is very dangerous and can cause death. The police generally don’t have an MMA referee right there watching, telling the officer when to release the restraint and there’s no team of medics standing in the wings ready to immediately render aide, like there is in the world of MMA.

When talking about a strike to a nerve center with the goal of causing incapacitation, there are generally three proven techniques.

The first is called the brachial plexus stun. This is a strike aimed at a massive nerve complex in a person’s neck. The target is about half way between the shoulder and jaw bone and just forward of the major neck muscles on the side of a person’s neck. You can easily find the area by kneading the tips of your fingers deep into the skin of the described area. You’ll find that one spot that is dramatically more painful under the same amount of pressure than the areas around it.  That’s the brachial plexus nerve center.

The strike can be delivered with a normal closed fist punch, an open palm strike, or a forearm strike. If done correctly, the strike literally overloads the brain with pain and causes something akin to an electrical surge that will stun the attacker, make them get weak in the knees and possibly cause a very temporary loss of consciousness.

The police officer must take advantage of these few seconds to put handcuffs on the attacker or get them into some kind of restraint hold that will prevent the attacker from continuing to fight when they get their senses back.

The second technique is known as the, “Gerber Slap.”  This is an open palm strike targeted at the base of the skull, right where those big muscles on the back of the neck attach. The person delivering the strike is trained to slightly cup the hand, so the pressure of the strike actually comes through the fingertips and from the meaty part at the base of one’s palm. Similar to the brachial plexus stun, this causes a massive sensory overload in the brain and a stunning effect, or even a temporary loss of consciousness.

The last one is called the, “Super Scapula Stun.”  This is a strike that you might commonly associate with Hollywood, when the secret agent walks up behind the target and delivers a sharp, Karate type chop, with the blade of their hand, to the target’s shoulder and the target falls to the floor, unconscious.

In reality, it is much harder to pull off and requires significantly more force and pressure than Hollywood ever depicts. The target for the super scapula is the meaty portion of the trapezius muscles, within a couple inches of the neck. The strike is delivered in a downward and inward motion, usually with a closed fist, hammer like motion (as if to stab downward at the target with a knife).

For the best results, both fists should be used, striking at both sides (left and right) simultaneously. Police are often trained that if the target is standing, jumping up to deliver the strike from a higher position is preferred. The police are also trained to kick the target in the back of the legs hoping to drop them to their knees before delivering the strike, again allowing for a strike to come from above. The reason is simple combat physiology. You can hit something harder using that hammer fist strike that is well below shoulder level, than something which is at or above shoulder level.

We'll conclude with Part III next Tuesday.

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Deputy Karl Mai is a 16 year veteran of the El Paso County Sheriff’s Office in Colorado Springs, CO.  He has mostly worked street patrol and as a Field Training Officer (FTO), but has also worked in the county jail and as a Detective.